2n+1 query issue in bidirectional OneToOne relations


I new with hibernate and I tested n+1 query issue with different entity relations.
I discovered, that not only some proposed solutions do not solve n+1 query issue, but also I encontered 2n+1 issue in bidirectional OneToOne mapping.

I added maven project in attachments for issue reproduction.
Project is also available on github:

Imagine that you have two entities: Kennel and Dog. Both are related OneToOne with each other, so each Kennel can have only one Dog and vice versa.

You want to show table for user with information about Dogs and Kennels, so you have to fetch all data eagerly. If you have 50 rows per page, you want to get all data in 1 query.

When you execute such query:

You would expect that you retrieve data in 51 queries(n+1 issue). But in such cases hibernate will generate 101 queries.
First query will get list of all Kennels. Assuming that every Kennel has Dog, you get another 100 queries, 1 for each Kennel and Dog. It is extreamly inefficient. Undirected OneToOne relations or all OneToMany relations have n+1 issue in such case(but not 2n+1 issue).

If you try to use fetch join, you will improve performance in most cases(n+1 issue will be solved with 1 query, but in ManyToMany relations it issue still exists). But 2n+1 issue will transform to n+1 issue.
So such query:

Will give 51 queries instead of 1. Also first select will fetch all nedded data for both Kennels and Dogs, but hibernate still performs 50 queries to get Dog for each Kennel.

I tested it on Oracle Express Edition. Don't know if it is Oracle specific problem or global. In example I also used Lombok, but this library din't changed anything in hibernate behavior.


Hibernate 5.2.12.Final core and entity manager, Oracle Express Edition, Java 8, Windows 8.1


Piotr Jowko
February 19, 2018, 7:04 PM

I also found old issue with describes similar problem to this:

Gail Badner
February 20, 2018, 12:48 AM

, does your issue duplicate HHH-3930?

Piotr Jowko
February 20, 2018, 5:19 PM

@Gail Badner I'm not sure. I think that my task describes slightly different problem. It can be due to this, that task is very old and a lot of changes vere made in hibernate since then. describes n+1 query problem when fetching strategy is EAGER, and probably 2n+1 problem when LAZY fetch was choosed.

According to my test, now hibernate behaves differently and worse than before. It get 2n+1 problem in case of EAGER fetching, and n+1 when fetch join is used.

Piotr Jowko
February 25, 2018, 9:20 AM

Issues and looks similar to this.

Christian Beikov
March 17, 2018, 5:10 PM





Piotr Jowko

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