This mapping causes 2 instead of the expected 1 query to retrieve a Customer and its Address from the db:
select * from Customer customer0_ left outer join Address address1_ on customer0_.address_id=address1_.id where customer0_.id=?
select * from Customer customer0_ left outer join Address address1_ on customer0_.address_id=address1_.id where customer0_.address_id=?
Changing the mapping to a LAZY fetch type:
@OneToOne(fetch = FetchType.LAZY, cascade = CascadeType.ALL)
private Address address = new Address();
Causes 3 select queries instead of the expected 2 queries to retrieve a Customer (and its Address) from the db:
select * from Customer customer0_ where customer0_.id=?
select * from Address address0_ left outer join Customer customer1_ on address0_.id=customer1_.address_id where address0_.id=?
select * from Customer customer0_ where customer0_.address_id=?
The third select is superfluous because the relationship is already completely known: you already have the customer, so why not just set it on the address entity?
Making the address field in Customer a @ManyToOne doesn't make a difference.
Making the customer field in Address a @OneToMany does remove the extra select, but forces our model to change the relationship from Customer to List<Customer> where we know there'll be only 1 element.
Apparently Hibernate can figure out the reverse relationship with a @ManyToOne - @OneToMany without the need for additional queries, can't this be extended to @OneToOne bidirectional relationships as well?